Hyaluronic Acid (commonly abbreviated HA) is a biological polymer that plays a key role in several biochemical processes in the human organism. Hyaluronic acid is important for the processes of tissue regeneration and essential for maintaining a healthy skin that is smooth, firm, and attractive. There are roughly 15 to 20 grams of HA in an adult human body and it is continually synthesized and degraded at a fairly high rate. However with age the rate of synthesis decreases, while consumption remains the same. Reserves of HA in the body deplete quickly. This is where hyaluronic acid injections come in: they effectively restore the balance of HA in key areas of the skin, thus restoring its health and attractive appearance.
Hyaluronic Acid in Mesotherapy
Hyaluronic acid injections can provide a boost to the body’s natural reserves of HA where it’s needed most. Mesotherapy and biorepair injections can be used to treat dry, dehydrated skin, fine as well as deep wrinkles, photoaging, acne, scars, sagging skin, and stretch marks. Fillers based on hyaluronic acid can provide a boost of volume to face, lips and almost any other area. There are even cosmetics that contain HA. Naturally they are much less effective than invasive treatments such as injections, since chains of hyaluronic acid are large molecules that do not easily penetrate inside the skin, however, they are ideal for prolonging the effects of an injection treatment.
Since hyaluronic acid is a substance native to the human body, it is completely biodegradable and the injections have a low incidence of side effects.
Structure of Hyaluronic Acid Molecules
HA is a non-sulfated glycoaminoglycan. Structurally, it is an unbranched polysaccharide chain, composed of disaccharide units formed by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. HA molecules (chains) are quite large, even for organic compounds, and can contain from 12,000 to 25,000 of these units. The molecular weight of HA varies depending on the number of disaccharide units.
For the purposes of mesotherapy, Hyaluronic Acid molecules should ideally be roughly of the same molecular weight (have the same number of disaccharide units). HA is degraded under the action of different enzymes, collectively known as the hyaluronidase family. Biological half-life of unmodified hyaluronic acid is about 3-5 days. (Biorepair drugs use HA modified with additional components, such as vitamins and amino acids, which has a longer half-life.)
Hyaluronic Acid for medical purposes can be of either animal or biotechnological origin (bacterial fermentation of non-pathogenic strains of streptococcus). The optimum concentration of HA in preparations for mesotherapy must not exceed 10 mg / ml (or 1%).